Urinary Incontinence

What is urinary incontinence? Urinary incontinence during the day is called diurnal incontinence. It is not usually diagnosed until girls are 5 years old and boys are 6 years old. Daytime continence is achieved roughly 10 months before nighttime continence.

What causes incontinence? Continuous incontinence is usually caused by congenital malformations. Intermittent incontinence is leakage in discrete amounts and can be caused by hormone imbalance, overactive bladder, infrequent urination, small bladder, bladder spasms, UTI, constipation, genetics, anxiety, diet and fluid intake, and voiding postponement.

Signs and Symptoms? Some symptoms of incontinence include holding maneuvers, feeling of incomplete emptying, post micturition dribble, genital itching and pain, and skin irritation.

How is incontinence diagnosed? The doctor will take a medical history, family history, and may perform a physical exam. Noninvasive tools include a bladder diary, uroflow measurements, ultrasound, questionnaires, and psychological screenings. Invasive measures include urodynamic studies.

How is incontinence treated? Incontinence is treated with controlling urinary urge and bladder retraining using bladder diary and schedule, constipation management, proper toileting posture, breathing exercises, skin care and proper wiping education, neuromuscular reeducation on pelvic floor muscles, therapeutic exercise for PFM activation and endurance, biofeedback of pelvic floor musculature.